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Patent Pending: PCT/IB2013/050658
CrossFire Fusion Reactor - Aneutronic Star CrossFire Fusion Reactor - Colliding Beams
Why Fusion Energy?
Fusion energy is the only that can effectively be at the same time a clean, safe, dense and environmentally friendly power source to supply the world's energy needs, with no greenhouse gases, no long-term radioactive waste, no large land areas, no interruptions by the weather or time of day, easy shutdown, no meltdowns and no proliferation.

What is Fusion?
Fusion is the process in which light atomic nuclei, with enough kinetic energy, collides with each other to combine to form a heavier atomic nucleus releasing a tremendous amount of energy. Fusion reactions is much more safe (no long-term radioactive waste problem) and have an energy density many times greater than nuclear fission. It can release millions of times more energy than oil and coal or any other conventional source,i.e., nuclear fusion has high-power and high-energy density, cannot "blow up or melt down"; no large areas of land are needed, power production more constant and compact.

CF Fusion technology:
The CrossCrossFire Fusion - BoltFire Fusion Reactor is a concept that uses steady-state magnetic fields to confine radially, and helicoidal moving magnetic forces to accelerate and trap axially plasma of electrically charged ions, in an energy-efficient way to ignite fusion reactions, but allowing the charged byproducts to escape longitudinally to the outputs to be converted directly into electricity, producing safe, clean, dense, and virtually unlimited electric power with no pollution and no radioactive waste. In a low-cost way to enable affordable construction of self-sustaining fusion power plants with easy integration to current power grid to become promptly relevant in global marketplace energy generation.

1. Multiphase neutral-plasma accelerator:
The multiphase accelerator concept consists of a set of concentric helix-coils axially 90° rotated from each other and feed by out-of-phase electric currents [0° 90° 180° 270°] (quadrature) in order to produce unidirectional moving forces (like a linear AC motor) in order to ionize and propel neutral plasma fuel to acquire high kinetic energy. The resulting helicoidal moving force is from rotating and moving forces; the rotating magnetic fields are to split neutral plasma into tiny bunches of negatively and positively charged ions that tend to go in opposite directions at first glance, but the resulting axial moving magnetic fields (that can be mathematically proven by the sum of sine functions) is to propel both unidirectionally in slight sparse/spaced packages of ion plasma.
Multiphase Accelerator - Rifled-Coil
Multiphase Accelerator - Continuous Acceleration The helicoidal moving magnetic forces can be produced by out-of-phase electric currents flowing through a set of concentric helix-coils axially 90° rotated from each other, and also alternatively by a resonator feed by phased RF { [0° 90°]⊥[90° 180°] } orthogonally disposed quarter-wave(¼λ) spaced.

In terms of analogy, its physics principle, in essence, is more closely related to multiphase linear AC motors, mainly regarding phase sequence mechanics. The phase sequence produces moving magnetic fields resulting in a unidirectional force, but with difference that multiphase accelerator produces both rotating and moving force resulting in helicoidal force; it is to be shorter and with potentially much more torque than Linacs. The rotating force is to keep the hot plasma centered far from the inner walls while the moving force propels unidirectionally and increases the plasma kinetic energy toward the reaction chamber.

Neutral plasma is equally comprised by positively and negatively charged particles and interacts with magnetic fields and vice-versa F=q(v × B). Differently in atmospheric scenery, fusion fuel becomes easily ionized within low-pressure environment (vacuum), it is to have its positive and negative charges split a little bit apart by just puffing it against magnetic fields.
Magnetic Fields
Moving magnetic fields exert forces on charges F=q(v × B) and vice-versa; and even more evident at GHz frequencies.
Hence the unidirectional moving force is to act even on neutral plasma, splitting apart some of its electrons, enough for starting chain ionization, impelling forward in tiny bunches of negatively and positively charged ion plasma thereby forming overall alternating plasma current to be swept/carried forward by the resulting axial moving magnetic forces.

Something that is able to accelerate unidirectionally neutral plasma is unprecedentedly novel in fusion area; it is to be able to accelerate and confine neutral plasma in higher density than before leading to higher fusion rate still yet never got, besides that it is to create a newer paradigm which is to upset what it is already known for long years.

There is some consensus among almost all fusion scientists, that neutral plasma is better to achieve break-even, but up to now, there was no acceleration mechanism that could accelerate inwardly and decelerate outwardly, i.e. confine efficiently the neutral plasma isotropically inside the reactor core. Briefly, up to now in fusion energy area was not met all these requirements just in a sole concept:
- neutral plasma acceleration and confinement (low repulsion);
- isotropic neutral beam collisions (high density, high fusion rate);
- steady-state operation;
- temperature, density, confinement time (Lawson conditions);
- reasonable power consumption (for net energy gain);
- direct and indirect power conversion from fusion byproducts (self-sustentation);
- relatively compact in relation to Tokamaks;
- capability of burning neutronic (D-D, D-T) and aneutronic fuels (p-B11, helium-3);
- self-sustaining, stable, predictable, controlled.
CrossFire Fusion - Isotropic Collisions And all these requirements are expected to be met by this fusion approach based on multiphase acceleration of neutral plasma in spherically convergent (isotropic) collisions.

2. Truncated Octahedron (Isotropic Collisions):
CrossFire Fusion - Truncated Octahedron A truncated octahedron is the basis for the reactor core; it consists of fourteen multiphase accelerators surrounded by superconducting electromagnets having their north and south poles disposed to form multipoles fields inside of the truncated octahedron core in order to prevent the hot plasma from hitting on the inner walls. The superconducting electromagnets are to consume just few kilowatts, and the magnetic fields can withstand very high-temperature ion plasma (r=mv/qB)

Multiple beams, in an isotropic (quasi-spherical) colliding path, tend to dispute space repelling each other convergently toward the center of the reaction chamber thereby increasing density (collisional/inertial forces from all-sides) and thus likelihood of more fusion reactions. The hot plasma is prevented from touching on the inner walls of the reaction chamber by the multipoles and magnetic mirror effect (tendency for charged particles to bounce back from a high-field region), and it is also trapped isotropically inside the core by the moving forces produced by the multiphase accelerators. The reactants are not to escape unless fusion reactions occur impelling both byproducts and unburned reactants to outputs, which means net energy gain to be harvested for electric power production. Subsequently, the burned (byproducts) and unburned reactants can be separated to improve the fuel utilization. There is no significant problem if the path of accelerating reactants is the same with the escaping byproducts, because the accelerating reactants describe a wider radius at the start point, but even so, there is an alternative of injecting the fuel/reactants at predetermined intervals instead of continuously. In few micrograms of fusion fuel there are trillions and trillions of atomic nuclei, and also free electrons that can decrease the Coulomb repulsion, then fusion reactions are far more likely to take place.

Primarily, it relies on inertial confinement from spherically convergent colliding beams; and secondarily, on multipoles magnetic fields to confine both reactants and byproducts. That is, inertial confinement plus multipoles containment.
CrossFire Fusion - Aneutronic Star - LegendsCrossFire Fusion Reactor - Aneutronic Star

Brief characterization in relation to other fusion approaches: multiphase acceleration, steady-state magnetic confinement, escape mechanism for direct energy conversion.

Up to this time, there was no nuclear fusion reactor designed for using multiphase alternating electric currents to produce radially and axially moving magnetic fields resulting in helicoidal moving force to both accelerate and confine plasma of charged particles.

Central paradigm based on multiphase acceleration instead of magnetic compression. Hence by operating in steady-state, in an energy-efficient way, almost continuously, instead of pulsed-mode, it is expected to be disruptive enough in relation to the current technologies to enable a positive impact on clean and safe fusion energy generation area.

Net energy gain in a colliding beam configuration is to depend upon fusion rate:
Deuterium-deuterium (D-D):
D + D + 15keV ⇒ ((T + p) 50% + (He3 + n) 50%) + 3.65MeV   (87 terajoules/kg ≈ 87kJ/µg)
raw gain is about 243(3.65MeV/15keV) and if all energy ends as waste heat, and with a typical thermoelectric efficiency about 30% (100/(99+243)), it is needed a fusion rate 1/100 (1%), i.e., 99 scatterings and at least one successful fusion event for net gain (self-sustainability). Fusion with net gain is little hard but not impossible after all.
Succinctly, almost all electromagnetic radiations, including Bremsstrahlung, are to end as waste heat, which can be partially recovered into electric power again, about one-third, making the system self-sustaining, with net energy gain, if fusion rate reaches 1% for D-D, or 3% for p-B11. Thus it can be initially fueled with deuterium gas and subsequently with diborane B₂H₆. The fusion fuel is to be accurately calculated and injected in micrograms/second.

Required fusion rate (r) in function of thermoelectric efficiency (η) and raw gain (α):
 r = (η⁻¹ -1) / (α -1)
  D-D p-B11
   (3.65MeV/15keV)   (8.68MeV/120keV) 
α 243 72
    η     required rate
20% 1.65% 5.63%
30% 0.96% 3.29%
40% 0.62% 2.11%
50% 0.41% 1.41%
60% 0.28% 0.94%
70% 0.18% 0.60%
80% 0.10% 0.35%
90% 0.05% 0.16%
98% 0.01% 0.03%

However, p-B11 is seven times easier than D-D in terms of required density for breakeven, demonstrated as follows.

Required density (nuclei/m³) for achieving a fusion rate (%) :
  σ = R/(R₀*n*d) = R/I [2]
  R₀ = number of particles that strike the target every second (#/s)
  R = number of nuclei reactions per second (#/s)
  n = nuclei per volume (#/m³)
  σ = cross section of the nuclei (m²)
  d = diameter/thickness (m)
  r = R/R₀ ( fusion rate(%) )

  σ = R/(R₀*n*d) ⇒
  n = r/(σ*d)
cross-sections nuclear fusion
      source: University of Wisconsin - Madison

Density for Fusion Breakeven - CrossFire Fusion

Supposing, as framework, a central stationary plasma sphere (target) 0.1m ("freely chosen") of diameter(d)  ≈ ½liter,
formed from and trussed by spherically(isotropic) convergent colliding beams; having in mind a typical 30% thermoelectric efficiency, so it can be calculated density(nuclei/m³) for breakeven (Q ≥ 1):

The best for D-D is around 100keV:
  D-D (3.65MeV) @100keV   ≈ 75millibarns = 7.5E-30
  r = (η⁻¹ -1) / (α -1) r = ( (1/0.3) -1)/((3.65MeV/100keV) -1) r = 6.57%
  n = r/(σ*d) n = 0.0657/(7.5E-30*0.1) n = 0.88E29 nuclei/m³

And for D-T is around 65keV:
  D-T (17.6MeV) @65keV   ≈ 5barns = 5E-28
  r = (η⁻¹ -1) / (α -1) r = ( (1/0.3) -1)/((17.6MeV/65keV) -1) r = 0.87%
  n = r/(σ*d) n = 0.0087/(5E-28*0.1) n = 0.00173E29 nuclei/m³

And for p-B11 (8.68MeV), 120keV and 600keV:
  @120keV   ≈ 100millibarns = 1E-29
      r = (η⁻¹ -1) / (α -1) r = ( (1/0.3) -1)/((8.68MeV/120keV) -1) r = 3.27%
      n = r/(σ*d) n = 0.0327/(1E-29*0.1) n = 0.327E29 nuclei/m³
  @600keV   ≈ 1.3barns = 1.3E-28
      r = (η⁻¹ -1) / (α -1) r = ( (1/0.3) -1)/((8.68MeV/600keV) -1) r = 17.33%
      n = r/(σ*d) n = 0.1733/(1.3E-28*0.1) n = 0.133E29 nuclei/m³

 (ref: "1E29 atoms in m³ of water")
 (ref: deuterium liquid: 162.4 kg/m³   ≈ 0.5E29 nuclei/m³)

By comparing the required densities (nuclei/m³), D-D (0.88E29), D-T (0.00173E29), and p-B11 (0.133E29):
p-B11 is seven times (0.88/0.133) better than D-D and eighty times (0.133/0.00173) worse than D-T, but still six times less dense than liquid water (within a framework ∅ 10cm sphere as target). In practice, it was already proven ten thousand times easier than previously thought:
"It was a surprise when we used hydrogen-boron instead of deuterium-tritium," says Hora. "It was not 100,000 times more difficult to ignite, as it would be under the usual compression process. It would be only 10 times more difficult …" [3] [4] [5] [6]
The convergent neutral-plasma beams are to create a resulting pellet hyper-dense at the centre of the truncated octahedron core (neutral plasma, lower repulsion, higher density); as the spherically convergent beams tend to dispute space with each other, mutual self-aligning, towards the centre, forming and trussing a hyper-dense spheroidal target.
Moreover, it is to occur further fusion interactions within multipole fields and short chain reactions, involving unburned reactants triggered by byproducts, that can increase even more the fusion rate.

Magnetic pressure: pm = B²/2µ₀ = 4.5²/ (2*4πE-7) = 8.05721E6 J/m³
8.05721E6 / 101325   ≈ 80 atmospheres

Inertial pressure in function of energy(E), area(A) and deformation(Δd), per time(t):
  P=F/A P=(F*Δd)/(A*Δd) P=E/(A*Δd) P/t = (E/t)/(A*Δd)
For 10 megawatts convergent beams, ∅ 10cm sphere as target "freely choosen", deformation(Δd) = 0.1mm:
  A=4πr² A=4π(0.1 /2)² = 0.031416 m²
  P/t = (E/t)/(A*Δd) P/t = 10E6/(0.031416*0.1E-3) = 3.183E12 ≈ 31.414E6 atm/second
31 million atmospheres per second, steady-state(continuously) blasting/smashing.
note: the inertial pressure, calculations above, can be disputable; but complementarily, the magnetic pressure is to be enough to keep a target within sufficient density.
Probably the inertially confined (compressed) atoms may undergo a collapse into a denser state, magnifying the fusion rate.

High inertial pressure, protons and electrons (+p-e) squeezed together, catalyzing, reducing the net proton-proton Coulomb repulsion (+p-e+p), favorable electron capture/virtual neutron formation, for the "spheroidal target" shrinking and collapsing into hyper-densities, enabling high fusion rate.

Thus aneutronic (neutron-free) p-B11 net gain is technologically feasible with the multiphase acceleration in a isotropic (spherically) convergent colliding-beam configuration to get high densities.

CrossFire Reactor - Hydrogen Boron Fusion (p-B11) Magnetic confinement for hydrogen-boron fusion (p-B11):
  p + ¹¹B 3α + 8.68MeV = ⁴He (3.76 MeV) + ⁴He (2.46 MeV) + ⁴He (2.46 MeV)
  1 eV(electron-volt) = 1.60218E-19 Joules
  p-B11 mass: 6protons + 6neutrons = 6* 1.67262E-27 + 6* 1.67493E-27 = 20.0853E-27 kg
  specific energy: (8.68MeV * 1.60218E-19)/( 20.0853E-27) = 69.2393E+12 J/kg
  consumption per MW(megawatt): 1E6/69.2393E12 = 14.4427E-9 kg/s ≈ 15 µg/s (micrograms/second)
  charge-to-mass ratio = (6* 1.60218E-19)/20.0853E-27 = 47.86127E+6 C/kg

  E=½mv² v=((E/m)*2)0.5 v= (69.2393E+12 * 2)0.5 v=11.7677E+6 m/s
  charged byproduct in curved path with radius(r) of 15cm
  r=mv/qB B= (v/r)/(q/m)
  B=(11.7677E+6/0.15)/ 47.86127E+6 B=1.64 T ideal ≈ 4 Teslas
The magnetic fields can be generated by superconducting electromagnets(few kilowatts) or by water-cooled electromagnets(megawatts), anyway it represents a fixed cost in terms of energy consumption and about one-third of their waste heat can be turned again into electricity.

Boron (¹¹B) is advantageous, in terms of cleanliness as well required density, in relation to deuterium(D) and is, readily available, far more abundant than tritium(T) and helium-3 (³He).

Conceptually, it is much closer to the practicality, in a stable, reliable, predictable and controllable manner for large-scale energy production with no pollution and no radioactive waste, contributing for a pollution-free Earth.

The fusion fuels can be composed of light atomic nuclei like hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, helium, lithium, beryllium, boron, and their various isotopes. However, helium-3, hydrogen-1 (boron-11, lithium-6, lithium-7, beryllium-9) are of interest for aneutronic nuclear fusion (low neutron radiation hazards).
1H + 2 6 Li 4He + (3He + 6Li) → 3 4He + 1 20.9  MeV( 153  TJ/kg ≈  42  GWh/kg)
1H + 7 Li → 2  4He + 17.2  MeV ( 204  TJ/kg ≈ 56  GWh/kg)
1 + 9 Be 4He + 6Li + 2.1  MeV ( 22  TJ/kg ≈ 6  GWh/kg)
3He  + 3 He 4He + 2 1H + 12.9  MeV ( 205  TJ/kg ≈ 57  GWh/kg)
1H + 11 B → 3 4He + 8.7  MeV ( 66  TJ/kg ≈ 18  GWh/kg)

Aneutronic Fusion is clean and safe, only a minimum of radiation shielding is required. Most of the energy produced by aneutronic fusion is in the form of charged particles instead of neutrons, which can be converted directly into electricity by making them work against electric/magnetic fields that can potentially exceed 90% efficiency.

Conceptual Videos:
  Please choose "full-screen high-definition" for best viewing.

  "Helix-coils - Brief Presentation - Multiphase Fusion Reactor"   slideshare   issuu   authorstream   slideserve
  "Resonator - Brief Presentation - Multiphase Fusion Reactor"   slideshare   issuu   authorstream   slideserve


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  5. Bob Beale (9-Apr-2010). "New hope for ultimate clean energy: fusion power".
  6. Heinrich Hora et al (2011). "Fusion flame in uncompressed fuel by nonlinear force driven Petawatt-picosecond laser pulses".
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  12. "Conditions for Fusion", HyperPhysics (Retrieved 2012-05-20)
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  15. "List of Fusion Power Technologies", Wikipedia (Retrieved 2012-05-27)
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